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Antibodies

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ACTH-AH26+57

ACTH (same as Corticotropin) is a 39 amino acid active peptide produced by the anterior pituitary. This antibody is specific to Synacthen (aa1-24 of ACTH); does not react with CLIP (aa17-39 of ACTH). POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin or corticotropin-lipotropin) is a 267 amino acid polypeptide hormone precursor that goes through extensive, tissue-specific posttranslational processing by convertases....

Actin (Smooth Muscle) - 1A4

This antibody recognizes actin isotypes alpha of smooth muscle and those cells with myofibroblast differentiation. It labels smooth muscular cells, myofibroblasts, and myoepithelial cells. Using this antibody with other myogenic markers such as muscle actin, desmin and vimentin will be very helpful for differentiation of tumor from muscle origin. It is a useful marker for the identification...

AFP-EP209

Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus. It is thought to be the fetal form of serum albumin.  AFP binds to copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin and is found in monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric forms. Alpha-fetoprotein is synthesized by the cells of the embryonic yolk sac, fetal liver and fetal intestinal tract. AFP levels decrease soon after...

AFP-Polyclonal

AFP is normally synthesized in the liver, intestinal tract, and yolk sac of the fetus. Antibody to AFP has been shown to be useful in detecting hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and germ cell neoplasm, especially yolk sac tumors.

ALDH1A1-EP168

ALDH1A1 belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the next enzyme after alcohol dehydrogenase in the major pathway of alcohol metabolism. There are two major aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the liver, cytosolic and mitochondrial, which are encoded by distinct genes, and can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobility, kinetic properties, and subcellular...

ALK-EP302

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily. ALK is typically expressed at low levels in regions of the developing central and peripheral nervous system. ALK may be activated in cancer through multiple mechanisms. The most common mechanism is through formation of a fusion protein from chromosomal translocations, as in the case of anaplastic...

Alpha-Actin(Smooth Muscle)-EP188

Actins are a major component of the cytoskeleton ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Although actin is one of the most conserved eukaryotic proteins, six isoforms characterized by isoelectric point and amino acid sequence analysis. Four of them represent differentiation markers of muscle tissues and two are found practically in all cells. These six different actin isoforms share 90%...

AMACR (P504S) (13 H4)

AMACR (P504S) is an essential enzyme in the β -oxidation of branched -chain fatty acids. Recently, AMACR(P504S) was identified through cDNA library subtraction and microarrays in malignant prostate tissues. High expression of AMACR(P504S) protein is found in prostate adenocarcinoma but not in benign prostate tissue by immunohistochemical staining in paraffin-embedded tissues. The expression of...

Androgen Receptor-EP120

Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that is essential for the growth of prostate cancer cells. AR antibody labels epithelial cells and stromal cells in normal prostate . AR reactivity is also found in other types of cells, including epithelial cells of the breast and hepatocytes. In prostate cancer, AR expression is maintained throughout cancer progression....

Annexin VII -EP367

Annexin VII, also known as Annexin A7, is a calcium/phospholipid-binding protein belongs to the annexin superfamily. Annexin VII is broadly expressed in normal and tumor cells. Dysregulation of Annexin VII has been linked to progression of several types of tumors. The role of Annexin VII expression in tumor progression is tumor-type-specific. It acts as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma,...

Anti Alk-1A4

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembran region, and an intracellular kinase domain. It plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. This gene has been...

Arginase 1-ARG1/1125+ARG1/1126

Recognizes a protein of 35-38kDa, which is identified as Arginase 1 (ARG1). Arginase is a manganese metallo-enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to generate ornithine and urea. Arginase I and II are isoenzymes, which differ in subcellular localization, regulation, and possibly function. Arginase I is a cytosolic enzyme, which is expressed mainly in the liver as part of the urea cycle,...

ATRX-D5

ATRX is a member of the Snf2 family of helicase/ATPases, which contribute to the remodeling of the nucelosome structure in an ATP-dependent manner, and facilitate the initiation of transcription and replication. Structurally, ATRX contains a PHD zinc finger motif. ATRX is regulated throughout the cell cycle where it is differentially distributed within the nucleus. During interphase, ATRX...

Bcl-2- EP36

The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial permeability and release of cytochrome c. Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that resides in the outer mitochondrial wall and inhibits release of cytochrome c. Over-expression of Bcl-2 has been shown to promote cell survival by suppressing apoptosis. It has been documented that bcl-2 becomes deregulated in tumor cells...

Bcl-6-EP278

Bcl-6 is a kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor spanning 706 amino acids. Bcl-6 plays a central role in germinal centre (GC) formation, functioning as a regular of B lymphocyte growth and development by protecting GC B cells from undergoing DNA damage induced apoptosis. Logarajah S et al. found that Bcl-6 is involved in mammary epithelial differentiation, which may play a potential role...

Beta-Catenin-EP35

Beta-Catenin is a key regulatory protein involved in cell adhesion and signal transduction through the Wnt pathway. It plays important roles in development, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. Mutations in the Beta-Catenin gene CTNNB1 leading to stabilization of Beta-Catenin in the cytoplasm and translocation to the nucleus have been implicated in various forms of tumor including...

c-Kit/CD117 – EP10

Member of the Tyrosine Kinase Receptor (TKRs) and highly homologous to receptor PDF and CSF-1.Activation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase by SCF (Stem Cell factor) leads to autophosphorylation and association of c-Kit with substrate PI3K.  c-Kit/CD117 is a marker for Mast cell and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

c-Myc-EP121

The c-Myc gene is located at chromosome 8q24. It is required for progression through the cell cycle and promotes cellular proliferation. The t(8;14)(q24;q32) translocation and the c-Myc/immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) fusion gene are not only in Burkitt lymphoma, but are also seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, blastic mantle cell lymphoma and transformed follicular lymphoma. In another study...

C4D-C4D204

This antibody is specific to Complement4d (C4d) and it reacts with the secreted as well as cell-bound C4d protein. C4d is a degradation product of the activated complement factor C4b. Complement 4d is typically initiated by binding of antibodies to specific target molecules. Following activation and degradation of the C4 molecule, thio-ester groups are exposed, which allow transient, covalent...

C4D-EP272

C4d is the degradation product of the activated complement factor C4, Following activation and degradation of the C4 molecule, thioester groups are exposed which allow transient, covalent binding of the degradation product C4d to endothelial cell surfaces and extracellular matrix components of vascular basement membranes near the sites of C4 activation. C4d is also found in intracytoplasmic...

CA 19.9-121SLE

CA19-9, a carbohydrate epitope expressed on a high MW (>400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewisa structure which is synthesized from type 1 blood group precursor chains and is present in individuals expressing the Lewis a and/or Lewis b blood group antigens. In normal tissues, sialyl Lewis a antigen is present in ductal epithelium of the breast, kidney, salivary gland, and sweat glands....

CA125 - EP48

Carcinoma antigen 125 (CA125) is a high molecular weight tumor antigen. It is a heavily glycosylated mucin encoded by MUC16 gene. It is expressed on ovarian carcinoma and several epithelial tumors including endometrial carcinoma, cervix carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma of bladder. In addition, CA125 also binds to mesothelin and expressed on mesothelioma. The binding of CA125 to mesothelin may...

Calcitonin-EP92

Calcitonin is a 32-amino acid polypeptide hormone that is commonly expressed in the Para follicular C-cells in the thyroid gland. Calcitonin is a potent plasma calcium-lowering peptide; it decreases the level of calcium and phosphate in blood by promoting the incorporation of these ions in bones. Calcitonin antibody is useful for the identification of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid...

Caldesmon-EP19

Caldesmon is a smooth muscle regulatory protein that interacts with actin, myosin, tropomyosin and calmodulin. It is more specific to smooth muscle differentiation than desmin and muscle specific actin. Also, it is useful in differentiation of smooth muscle from myofibroblast tumors and uterus leiomyoma from endometrial stroma tumor. Caldesmon is a marker for identification of epitheloid...

Calponin-1-EP63

Calponin is a smooth muscle specific, actin-, tropomyosin- and calmodulin-binding protein thought to be involved in regulation of actomyosin as well as the regulation or modulation of contraction. It is expressed on smooth muscle cells and myoepithelial cells. Calponin has been used to identify invasion of breast lesion. Additionally, Calponin is expressed on malignant fibrous histiocytoma of...

Calretinin-Rabbit Polyclonal

Calretinin is a member of the superfamily of calcium-binding protein. It is abundantly expressed in central and peripheral neural tissues. Calretinin is expressed by both normal and neoplastic mesothelial cells and is a useful marker for the identification of malignant mesothelioma of the epithelial type and for the differentiation of the malignancies from metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma....

Cathepsin D-EP81

Cathepsin D is a ubiquitously expressed lysosomal protease that is involved in proteolytic degradation, cell invasion, and apoptosis. It is suspected to play important roles in protein catabolism, antigen processing, degenerative diseases, and cancer progression. Cathepsin D is present in many types of cancer cells. In breast cancer, it is induced by estrogens and its expression is correlated...

CD10-GM003

Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD10 clone GM003 primary antibody recognizes the CD10 molecule, or common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen(CALLA).The antibody is useful in the characterization of a subset of malignant lymphomas(e.g. precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, follicular center cell lymphoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma), in which CD10 is frequently expressed. CD10 may be used as part of a panel of...

CD103 -EP206

CD103, also known as integrin alpha E (ITGAE) is an integrin protein that in humans is encoded by ITGAE gene. It binds integrin beta 7 to form the complete heterodimeric molecular αEβ7 that binds to an extracellular matrix component and cellular counter receptor.They mediate cell adhesion,migration and signaling and are important for T-lymphocyte localization.CD103 is expressed on...

CD105-EP274

CD105(endoglin) is a disulfide-linked homodimeric cell membrane glycoprotein. It was initially discovered in a human pre-B cell line. CD105 functions as a receptor for transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 and β3, and modulates TGF-β signaling through interactions with TGF-β receptors I and/or II. CD105 is a proliferation-associated and hypoxia inducible protein abundantly expressed in...

CD117(c-kit)-Polyclonal

CD117(c-kit) is expressed on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, master cells, cajal cells, mammalian ductal epithelia, melanocytes, and basal cells of skin. The antibody is a useful tool for the identification of cancers expressing c-kit, e.g. small cell lung carcinoma(SLCL), mast cell diseases, Ewing sarcoma, and may aid in the differentiation between gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs) and...

CD138-EP201

CD138, also known as Syndecan-1, is a member of the transmembrane heparin sulfate proteoglycan family, acts as an extracellular matrix receptor and is involved in many cellular functions, including cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion. CD138 expression is found in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.In the hematopoietic system, CD138 labels plasma cells. It is an excellent...

CD15-BRA-4F1

CD15 is expressed on Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's diseases and by various other cell types including myeloid cells and epithelial cells. CD15 recognizes a pentasaccharide sequence occurring in lacto-N-fucopentaose III ceramide (also referred to as Xhapten of Lex) found in higher glycolipids and glycoproteins. A review by Arber et al. has reported that antibodies to CD15 demonstratepositive...

CD15-EP273

CD15 is a complex cluster of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids with a common trisaccharide structure, 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine (3-FL), also referred to as Lewis X(LeX) antigen. This antigen is involved in neutrophil functions such as, cell-cell interactions, phagocytosis, stimulation of degranulation and respiratory burst. The CD15 is expressed in Reed-Sternberg cells, myeloid cells...

CD163-EP324

CD163 is an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, thereby protecting tissues from free hemoglobin- mediated oxidative damage. Expression of CD163 is restricted to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. This antibody labels monocytes and macrophages in the spleen and peripheral blood. The CD163 antibody might...

CD19-EP169

CD19 is a pan B cell marker expressed in a wide range of maturational stages including pre B cells. CD19 labels the membrane of B cells in germinal centers including B cells and follicular dendritic cells, mantle zone cells and cells in the interfollicular areas. It is negative in plasma cells. CD19 is found in the majority of B cell-derived malignancies.

CD1a-010

CD1a is expressed on dendritic cells and cortical thymocytes. Langerhans cells in the skin and some epithelia also express CD1a. CD1a positive staining aids in the classification of thymomas, differentiation various cutaneous lymphomas (T-cell) from B-cell lymphomas and pseudolymphomas, and diagnosis of Langerhans’s cell histocytosis and Langerhans cell sarcoma.

CD1a-EP80

Cluster of Differentiation 1a (CD1a) is part of a family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen-like glycoproteins that associate with beta-2-microglobulin. CD1a binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens, presenting them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. CD1a antibody labels cortical thymocytes, Langerhans' cells and dendritic cells. It has been used to...

CD2-EP222

T-cell surface antigen CD2 (CD2) is a T-cell specific surface glycoprotein that is critically important for mediating adherence of T cells to antigen-presenting cells or target cells. It interacts with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-3) and CD48/BCM1 to mediate adhesion between T-cells and other cell types. CD2 is involved in triggering T-cells, and the cytoplasmic domain is involved...

CD20-L26

CD20 is expressed on B-cell precursors and mature B cells, but is lost in plasma cells. CD20 is almost always expressed in B cell lymphomas of small cell type, prolymphocytic leukemia, follicular center cell lymphomas, large or small cell types of both diffuse and follicular patterns, monocytoid lymphomas, mantle cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemias/lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas. Clone...

CD21-EP64

CD21 is a single-pass type-2 transmembraneprotein that serves as the complement receptor for C3d and the Epstein-Barr virus. CD21 antibody labels follicular dendritic cells and mature B cells particularly in marginal and mantle zone of lymphoid tissues. It is a useful marker to identify neoplasms derived from follicular dendritic cells.

CD23-EP75

CD23, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is a key molecule for B-cell activation and growth functions as a receptor for IgE. CD23 antibody labels activated B-cells expressing IgM/IgD and follicular dentritic cells. In tumors, CD23 antibody is helpful in identification of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular dendritic cell tumors, and mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. In...

CD3- EP41

CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3) is a complex of proteins that associates directly with the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). CD3 is composed of five invariant polypeptide chains that associate to form three dimers. The five invariant chains of CD3 are labeled gamma, delta,epsilon, zeta, and eta. The CD3 is involved in T cell development and survival. It is expressed on T cells in Thymus,...

CD3-Polyclonal

CD3 is a highly specific marker for T Lymphocytes. It is expressed by T cells in thymus, bone marrow, peripheral lymphoid tissue and blood. The majority of T-cell neoplasm expresses the CD3 antigen, while it is absent from non-T-cell lymphoid malignancies. CD3 is an essential marker for the initial evaluation of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

CD30-Ber-H2

This antibody labels anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Reed-Sternberg cells. It is a useful tool for the identification of ALCL and as a secondary marker for Hodgkin’s disease. CD30 antigen is also expressed in other abnormal tissues such as embryonal carcinomas and mesenchymal tumors. 

CD30-EP154

CD30, TNF-receptor superfamily member, is a receptor for TNFSF8/CD30L. TRAF2 and TRAF5 can interact with this receptor and mediate the signal transduction that leads to the activation of NF-kB. This receptor is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and it also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 effector T-cells and protect the body against autoimmunity. The CD30...

CD31(PECAM-1)-GM006

CD31 (also named platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1-PECAM-1) is expressed on endothelial cells and circulating and tissue phase hematopoitic cells. This antibody is useful tool for the identification of vascular disorders(eg. angiosarcoma) and determination of angiogenesis in some tumors. Positive results aid in the classification of benign and malignant human vascular disorders....

CD31-EP78

CD31, also known as PECAM-1, is a 130 kDa integral membrane glycoprotein found on the surface of endothelial cells, platelets, and some hematopoietic cells. The antibody labels endothelial cells of arteries, arterioles, venules, veins, and non-sinusoidal capillaries in various tissues. CD31 is the most sensitive and specific endothelial cell marker. It is useful for detection of tumors with...

CD34-EP88

CD34 (Cluster of differentiation 34) is a single-pass type I transmembrane glycoprotein which primary functions as a cell-to-cell adhesion factor. As an adhesion factor, CD34 is expressed during stem/progenitor stage of lymphohematopoietic development and possibly mediates the stem cell attachment to the bone marrow, ECM or stromal cells. CD34 is expressed on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells,...

CD34-Qbend 10

CD35-EP197

CD35, also named as erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1), is a member of the complement activation (RCA) family and is located in the ‘cluster RCA’ region of chromosome 1. CD35 mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. CD35 is present on erythrocytes, various leucocytes and renal glomerular podocytes. In addition, plasma contains a soluble...

CD38-EP135

CD38, also called ADP ribosyl cyclase, is an ectoenzyme that uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a substrate to generate second IVD messengers. In particular, it synthesizes cyclic ADP ribose, a second messenger for glucose induced insulin secretion. CD38 also has cADPR hydrolase activity. It is preferentially expressed at both early and late stages of B and T cell maturation. CD38 is...

CD4-EP204

CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T-helper cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. It is a co-receptor that assists the T-cell receptor (TCR) with an antigen-presenting cell and also interacts directly with MHC class II molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cells using its extracellular domain. In lymphatic tissues, the CD4+ T-cells are...

CD41-EP178

CD41, also named GP IIb, is a protein that in human is encoded by the ITGA2B gene. This protein can be associated with GPIIIa to form a heterodimer complex (GPIIb-IIIa) in the presence of Ca2+. This complex can bind one of four different adhesive proteins (i.e,fibrinogen,fibronectin,,von Willebrand factor [Vwf], or vitronectin). CD41 expression has been found on platelets, megakaryocytes, and,...

CD43-DF-T1

CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin, or leukocyte sialoglycoprotein) is a cell surface glycoprotein which is expressed on all thymocytes and T-cells. CD43 is involved in activation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and monocytes.

CD44-EP44

CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein postulated to play a role in a variety of biological processs, including cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion, lymphocyte homing and tumor cell metastasis. Several isoforms of CD44 have been identified in human cells, and the genesis of some of these isoforms has been attributed to alternative splicing. Understanding of mechanisms regulating CD44...

CD45(LCA) - 2B11+PD7/26

CD45 leukocyte common antigen(LCA) belongs to the family of at least four isoforms of membrane glycoproteins (220, 205, 190, 180kDa) expressed on hematopoietic cell lines but absent on non-hematopoietic tissues. The intracellular portion of these molecules has protein phosphatase activity and is involved in regulation of transmembrane signals. Antibody to CD45 is useful in differential...

CD45-EP68

CD45, also known as the leukocyte common antigen (LCA), is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) that is expressed in almost all hematolymphoid cells including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and macrophage, but not in mature erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. CD45 antibody labelling of majority of hematolymphoid neoplasms, is a first line of marker for the identification of...

CD45RO-UCHL-1

This antibody mainly recognizes the 180 kD (O isoform – CD45RO) variant of CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA). It labels most T lymphocytes, macrophages and Langerhan’s cells of normal tissue. It is a useful tool for identifying T-cell lymphomas, and for the differentiation of low grade B-cell from T-cell lymphomas.

CD5-EP77

CD5 (Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein which has been implicated as a receptor in the regulation of T-cell proliferation. CD5 antibody labels a variety of T-lymphocytes, mantle zone lymphocytes and a small subset of B-lymphocytes. In tumors, CD5 is expressed on T-cell malignancies, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and...

CD56-123C3

This antibody recognizes two proteins of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the basic molecule expressed on most neuroectodermally derived cell lines, tissues and neoplasms.This antibody is useful for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells, NK-like T cells, neural/neuroendocrine tissues and related neoplasms. The antibody labels NK cells and a subset of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in...

CD57-NK1

The CD57 glycoprotein, also known as HNK-1,has a molecular weight of 110 kD. It is found on a subset of mononuclear cells with natural killer activity and on neuroectodermal cells expressing myelin-associated glycoprotein. Many cells which co-express CD57 and CD8 proteins are a subset of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a role in the rejection of grafts in acute graft versus host...

CD63-EP211

CD63 is a 53 kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a platelet activation molecule that belongs to the tetraspanin family, which is characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. CD63 can mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cellular adhesion, cell differentiation, migration, carcinogenesis, and tumor progression. CD63 shows...

CD68-KP1

CD68 is expressed on macrophages and monocyte. KP-1 is important for identifying macrophages in tissue sections. It stains macrophages in a wide variety of human tissues, including Kupffer cells and macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen, in lamina propria of the gut, in lung alveoli, and in bone marrow. KP-1 reacts with myeloid precursors and peripheral blood granulocytes. It also reacts with...

CD7-EP132

CD7 is a single-pass type 1 transmembrane protein that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It plays an essential role in T-cell interactions and also in T-cell/B-cell interactions during early lymphoid development. CD7 is expressed on thymocytes, T- and natural killer cells, and progenitors of lymphoid and myeloid cells. It is also expressed on T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic...

CD74-EP167

Cluster of Differentiation 74(CD74) is a type II transmembrane protein. In normal tissues, CD74 is expressed in B-cells, monocytes, macrophages, langerhans cells, dendritic cells, subsets of activated T-cells, and thymic epithelium. Under inflammatory conditions, CD74 expression may be observed in endothelial and certain epithelial cells. CD74 expression has been observed in ~90% of B-cell...

CD79a-EP82

CD79 consists of two proteins: CD79a (mb-1) and CD79b (B29). CD79a recognizes the Ig-alpha protein, and CD79b recognizes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component of the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor. The expression of CD79 precedes immunoglobulin (Ig) gene, heavy-chain gene rearrangement and CD20 expression. In precursor B-cells, the CD79 protein chains are already expressed in the...

CD8-EP334

CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor (TCR). The CD8 molecule consist of a heterodimer of α and β chains covalently linked by a disulfide bond, and are predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells. CD8 expression can also be detected on natural killer cells, cortical thymocytes, and dendritic...

CD8α-C8/468

CD8 is a cell surface receptor expressed either as a heterodimer with the CD8 beta chain(CD8 alpha/beta) or as a homodimer (CD8 alpha/alpha). A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature T cells and NK cells express CD8a. CD8 binds to MHC class 1 and through its association with protein tyrosine kinase p56lck plays a role in T cell development and activation of mature T cells. For...

CD95-EP208

The CD95(Fas) protein is a cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor(TNF) family that transduces death signaling on engagement by multimeric Fas ligand(CD95L), of which there are eight in its membrane-bound form or in its soulble form resulting from cleavage by a putative metalloproteinase.CD95 is a widely expressed protein. CD95 mediated apoptosis is an essential mechanism for...

CD99-EP8

CD99 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, also known as MIC2. It is involved in T-cell adhesion, leukocyte migration and differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal cell. CD99 labels lymphocyte, ovarian granulosa cells, pancreatic islet cells, sertoli cells, CNS ependymal cells and endothelial cells. CD99 has been useful in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma, sex cord-stromal tumor, and endocrine tumor of...

CDK4-EP180

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16 (INK4a). Overexpression of CDK4 has been observed in many...

CDX-2-EP25

The caudal-related homeodomain protein 2, CDX-2, is a transcription factor which is expressed in the intestine and is thought to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. The CDX-2 protein is expressed in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas, intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and intestinal type gastric cancer. In human colorectal...

CEA-COL-1

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is found in several adenocarcinomas, such as colon, lung, breast, stomach and pancreas. Malignant mesothelioma is usually negative for CEA.The antibody is a useful tool for the identification of colon carcinomas, and for the distinction of mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma when used with a panel of antibodies (e.g. with Cytokeratin, Calretinin, etc.)

CEA-EP216

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), also known as CD66e, is a cell surface glycoprotein that exhibits several functions, including regulation of intercellular adhesion, differentiation and anoikis, cell polarization and tissue architecture. CEA is present in fetal colon and many types of epithelial tumors, including denocarcinomas of the GI tract, lung, and breast. Antibody to CEA is useful in...

Chromogranin A-EP38

Chromogranin A (CgA) is an 86 kDa protein that is the major member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins located in neurosecretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Chromogranin A showed broad expression in endocrine tissues including pituitary, adrenal medulla, thyroid, pancreatic islets, and gastrointestinal tract. Chromogranin A represents the single most specific marker of...

Chromogranin-A-Polyclonal

Chromogranin A present in secretory granules of endocrine cells. It is the most specific marker for neuroendocrine differentiation and corresponds to the neurosecretory granule.The antibody labels Chromogranin A and is used to qualitatively distinguish between neoplasm of neuroendocrine origin from non-neuroendocrine origin.

CK5 & CK14 Cocktail-CK5:EP24;CK14:EP61

Cytokeratin 5 (CK5) is a type II cytokeratin. Antibody to CK5 labels myoepithelial cells of breast and prostate basal cells. CK5 has been useful in different studies as immunohistochemical markers suggesting mesothelioma, and their expression is analyzed for the histological differentiation of adenocarcinomas, especially when facing metastatic tumors of unknown origin. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) is a...

CK5 & CK6 Cocktail- EP24 & EP67

Keratins are cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins expressed by epithelial cells. Cytokeratin 5(CK5) is a type II cytokeratin. CK5 labels myoepithelial cells of breast and prostate basal cells. CK5 and calretinin have been useful in different studies as immunohistochemical markers suggestive of mesothelioma, and their expression is analyzed for the histological differentiation with adeno...

CK5/CK6

Keratins are cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins expressed by epithelial cells. CK5 is a type II cytokeratin. Loss-of-function mutations in the keratin 5 gene (KRT5) affected family members and in six unrelated patients with Dowling-Degos disease (DDD), an autosomal dominant genodermatosis. This suggests a crucial role for keratins in the organization of cell adhesion, melanosome uptake,...

CK8 & CK18 Cocktail CK8: EP17; CK18: EP30

Cytokeratin 8 (CK8) is an intermediate filament protein produced early in embryogenesis. It is the only type-II CK occurring in many simple epithelial cells in respiratory, gastrointestinal, male and female reproductive tracts, and thyroid. CK8 is often co-expressed with Cytokeratin 18 (CK18). CK8/18 is the major keratin pair in simple-type epithelia, as found in the liver, pancreas, and...

CKAE1/AE3

The antibody cocktail labels simple epithelia and their tumors including cytokeratins expressed in complex stratified squamous epithelia. Positive results aid in the classification of normal and a wide range of neoplastic tissues as epithelial in origin. This antibody serves as first tier antibody for differentiation of undifferentiated neoplasm.

Clusterin-EP181

Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular debris and apoptosis. It is a stress-induced cytoprotective chaperone protein regulated by HSF1 and functions similarly to a small heat- shock protein. Clusterin is distributed widely in human tissues and fluids, including normal epithelial cells, plasma, cerebrospinal...

COL1A1-EP236

COL1A1 comprises the pro-alpha 1 chains of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha 1 chains and oe alpha 2 chain. Type 1 collagen is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in COL1A1 are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIA, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type, Caffey disease and idiopathic...

Collagen IV-PHM-12

Collagen IV is a major constituent of the basement membranes along with laminins and enactins. It is composed of α1(IV) chain and α2(IV) chain in 2:1 ratio. It can form insoluble fibres with high tensile strength. Antibody to collagen IV is useful in detecting the loss of parts of basement membrane in carcinomas. PHM-12 + CIV 22 is highly specific to type IV collagen. In kidney, it reacts with...

COX-2-EP293

COX-2, also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2), is an immediate-early gene that encodes a critical enzyme for the conversion of arachidonic acids to prostaglandins. Functionally, COX-2 exists as a homodimer, consisting of two 70kDa subunits. COX-2 derived prostanoids have been shown to increase resistance to apoptosis, promote angiogenesis, induce metastasis and invasion,...

COX-2-SP21

COX2 (Cyclooxygenase-2) is an inducible enzyme. It is involved in the response of cells to growth factors, tumor promoters, and cytokines that induce its expression. Given its role in synthesizing prostaglandins, COX2 is therefore of interest in studying immune response regulation. COX2 is induced by a wide variety of stimuli and was initially identified as immediate-early growth response gene....

Cyclin D1-EP12

Cyclin D1 belongs to the Cyclin D family. Cyclin D1 is required for the cell cycle G1/S transition. Amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays a pivotal role in the development of various human cancers including breast cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, prostate cancer and lymphoma. Cyclin D1 antibody is useful to differentiate mantle cell lymphoma from small cleaved cell lymphoma. Rabbit...

Cyclin E1-EP126

Cyclin E1 is a member of the cyclin E family that can associate with and activate cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. Expression of cyclin E1 is essential for the control of the cell cycle at the late G1 and early S phase. Ubiquination by the Cul-3 pathway and Fbw7 regulatescyclin E1 levels and is critically important in normal cells.  In normal cells, cyclin E1 protein expression is tightly...

Cyclin-D1-GR005

Anti-Cyclin D1 antibodies are useful in IHC analysis for the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphomas. It is an important marker for the differentiation between mantle cell lymphomas and other small B-cell lymphomas. In addition anti-Cyclin D1 antibody is a useful tool to identifying overexpression of cyclin D1 in breast and colon carcinomas.

Cytokeratin 10-EP97

Cytokeratin10(CK10) is an intermediate filament protein and typically associated with cytokeratin1(CK1). CK10 is expressed in the suprabasal cell layers of certain stratified epithelia, notably epidermis. CK10 has been used as a marker of epidermal differentiation. Antibody against CK10 is helpful in the identification of more differentiated squamous cell carcinomas.

Cytokeratin 13-EP69

Keratins are a family of highly homologous proteins expressed as pairs of acidic and basic forms which make intermediate filaments in epithelial cells. Cytokeratin 13 (CK13) is the major acidic keratin, which together with CK4, its basic partner, is expressed in the suprabasal layers of non-cornified stratified epithelia including tongue mucosa, esophagus, anal canal epithelium, tracheal...

Cytokeratin 14-LL002

Keratin 14 belongs to the type A (acidic) subfamily of low molecular weight keratins and exists in combination with keratin 5. Keratin 14 has been studied as a prognostic marker in breast cancer.

Cytokeratin 19-EP72

Cytokeratin polypeptide 19 (CK19) is a type I intermediate filament protein that is expressed in stratified and simple type epithelia. CK19 is systhesized mainly in embryonic and adult simple epithelia, but has also been found in non-keratinizing stratified epithelia as well. CK19 is the smallest known keratin and is remarkable in that, contrary to all other keratins, it does not have a...

Cytokeratin 20-EP23

Intermediate-sized filament (IF) protein designated cytokeratin 20 (CK20) is a major cellular protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells commonly found in mucosal epithelium of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Results strongly suggest that transcriptional regulation of keratin genes in the intestinal epithelium occurs at the level of both immature and terminally differentiated epithelial...

Cytokeratin 20-Ks20.8

This antibody is highly specific to cytokeratin 20 and shows no cross-reaction with other intermediate filament proteins. It is essentially non-reactive in squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the breast, lung, and endometrium, non-mucinous tumors of the ovary and small cell carcinomas.

Cytokeratin 7-EP16

Cytokeratin7(CK7) is a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein expressed on most ductal and glandular epithelium including lung, breast, bladder and female genital tract, but not in most gastrointestinal epithelium, prostate, hepatocyte and squamous epithelium. CK7 expression is absent in colon cancer, prostate cancer and Squamous carcinomas. The restricted expression of CK7 in some epithelium...

Cytokeratin 7-OV-TL 12/30

This antibody labels glandular and traditional epithelial cells. It is a useful marker for the identification of adenocarcinomas of the lung, breast, endometrium, thyroid gland, ovary, and transitional cell(urothelial) carcinoma.

Cytokeratin HMW-34βE12

The antibody reacts with keratins 1,5,10, and 14. In normal tissue, the antibody labels squamous, ductal, and other complex epithelia. The antibody has variable positivity to adenocarcinomas. The most useful application of the antibody was described in the differential diagnosis of basal cell hyperplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate. The antibody labels benign basal cells...

Cytokeratin-AE1/AE3

The antibody cocktail labels simple epithelia and their tumors including cytokeratins expressed in complex stratified squamous epithelia. Positive results aid in the classification of normal and a wide range of neoplastic tissues as epithelial in origin. This antibody serves as first tier antibody for differentiation of undifferentiated neoplasm.

Desmin-D33

Desmin is a characteristic intermediate filament of all three types of muscle cells (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle) and neoplasms associated with them. In general, desmin is a specific marker for myogenic differentiation among soft tissue tumors. It is seen in the majority of rhadbomyomas, leiomyomas, rhadbomyosarcoma, and leiomyosarcomas. Desmin is also seen in myofibroblasts....

Desmin-EP15

Desmin is a class-III intermediate filament protein expressed on smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. In adult striated muscle they form a fibrous network connecting myofibrils to each other and to the plasma membrane from the periphery of the Z-line structures. Desmin is useful in diagnosis of tumor with myoid origin. It can also be used to differentiate mesothelioma from carcinoma.

DOG 1-DG1/447+DOG 1.1

Expression of DOG-1 protein is elevated in the gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), c-kit signaling-driven mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract. DOG-1 is rarely expressed in other soft tissue tumors, which, due to appearance, may be difficult to diagnose. Immunoreactivity for DOG-1 has been reported in 97.8% of scorable GISTs, including all c-kit negative GISTs. Overexpression of DOG-1 has been...

DOG1-DOG1.1

DOG1 gene, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) specific gene, encoding for the hypothetical protein FLJ10261 which is named "Discovered on GIST1(DOG1). DOG1 expression has been reported to be a very sensitive and specific marker for GIST in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Among GIST cases with KIT mutations, DOG1 detected 11% more cases than CD117. In KIT/CD117 negative and PDGFRA mutant...

DOG1-EP332

DOG1, “discovered on GIST 1” encodes for a protein of unknown function that is highly sensitive and specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). GISTs occur in bowel walls and proposed to originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal. The majority of GISTs harbor activating mutations in KIT but approximate 5-15% of GIST are negative for c-Kit by immunohistochemistry, mainly...

E-Cadherin-EP6

E-Cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in epithelial cell adhesion. A decreased expression of E-Cadherin is associated with metastatic potential and poor prognosis in breast cancer and esophagus cancer. In combination with p120 Catenin or Cytokeratin, it is useful for the differentiation between ductal (E-Cadherin positive) and lobular (E-Cadherin negative) breast...

EGFR-EP11

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a 170 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase that, when activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), affects cell growth and differentiation in normal and cancer cells. Binding of EGF or TGF alpha to EGFR activates tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. The carboxy-terminal tyrosine residues on EGFR, Tyr 1068, Tyr 1148, and Tyr 1173,...

EGFR-EP22

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a 170 kDatransmembrane glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase that, activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), affects cell growth and differentiation. Binding of EGF or TGF alpha to EGFR activates tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. Phosphorylation of Tyr 992, Tyr 1068 and Tyr 1086 is required for conformational change in the C-terminal of EGFR....

EP-CAM-Ber-EP4

The epithelial antigen is expressed in epithelial cells and carcinomas. The antibody is a useful tool for differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma from mesothelioma, basal cell carcinoma from squamous cell carcinomas of skin. The antibody may also aid in the detection of micrometases in lymph nodes of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

Ep-CAM-EP155

Ep-CAM is a highly conserved type I transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on most normal and malignant epithelial cells. As a calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule, Ep-CAM is intricately linked with the Cadherin-Catenin pathway and hence the fundamental WNT pathway responsible for intracellular signaling and polarity. Ep-CAM is also known as epithelial cell adhesion molecule or MOC31,...

Epithelial Membrane Antigen-E29

Epithelial Membrane Antigen(EMA),or CA15-3, or polymorphic epithelial mucin(PEM), or sialomucin, or episialin is a mucin like glycoprotein. EMA is valuable as a marker in the detection of breast carcinoma metastasis in histological selection of liver, lymph node, and bone marrow, and is useful for differentiation anaplastic carcinoma from malignant lymphomas, and for the recognition of spindle...

ERG-EP111

ERG, the ETS related gene, belongs to the ETS family that plays important roles in cell development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling. This family of transcription factors contains approximately 30 members that share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain (ETS domain) and differs from each other in other domains (such as absence or presence of the Pointed/SAM domain)...

Estrogen Receptor Alpha-EP1

Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER alpha) is a nuclear protein and member of the steroid hormone receptor family. ER alpha possesses both DNA binding and ligand binding domains, and exerts a significant role in activating the transcription of certain genes. Ligand-dependent dimerization and phosphorylation both function to regulate the transcriptional activation of ER alpha.

Factor XIIIa-EP292

Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer, consisting of two A and two B subunits. Subunit A of factor XIII is an un-glycosilated 730-residue peptide with a molecular mass of 83 kD. It is the last enzyme generated in the blood coagulation cascade and is the zymogen for fibrinoligase, a transglutaminase that forms...

Fascin-EP116

Fascin, an actin-binding protein, induces parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and cell motility after the formation of lamellipodia or filopodia. The Fascin antibody labels dendritic cells in normal and tumor tissues. It is a sensitive marker for Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL). Thus, Fascin is useful for the identification of Hodgkin’s lymphoma as well as dendritic...

FLI-1-G146-22

The FLI-1 gene and FLI-1 protein are best known for their critical role in the pathogenesis of ES/PNET. More than 85% of ES/PNET are characterized by the translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) that results in the fusion of the ews gene on chromosome 22 to the FLI-1 gene on chromosome 11. FLI-1 is a member of the ETS (erythroblastosis virus-associated transforming sequences) family of DNA-binding...

FOXA1-EP277

FOXA1, also known as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-alpha, is a member of the FOX class of transcription factors. FOXA1 has been identified as a hepatocyte enriched factor required for the expression of transthyretin and α1- antitrypsin. Recently, FOXA1 has been shown to be a major determinant of estrogen-ER activity and endocrine response in breast cancer cells. FOXA1 expression correlates with...

FOXP1-EP137

The FOXP1 protein belongs to a functionally diverse family of winged-helix or forkhead transcription factors that have diverse roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. The FOXP1 gene has been mapped to chromosome 3p14.1, a region that commonly shows loss of heterozygosity in a wide range of tumors and is reported to contain a tumor suppressor gene(s). The...

FOXP3-EP340

FOXP3 is a member of the forkhead box(FOX) transcription factors, found to be a regulator in the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). While FOXP3 has been widely accepted as the best marker for Treg identification, it can also be transiently expressed on non-regulatory CD4+ T-cells upon T-cell antigen receptor activation, and in nonlymphocytic normal or cancer cells.Tregs are...

FSH-EP257

The pituitary glycoprotein hormone family includes follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. All of these glycoproteins consists of an identical alpha subunit and a hormone-specific beta subunit. FSH beta is the beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. In conjunction with luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone...

Galectin-3-9C4

Galectin-3 is a 31 kD beta-galactosidase binding lectin. It has been associated with binding to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Anti-Galectin-3 has been demonstrated to be valuable in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in both histologic sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy material. Anti-Galectin-3 antibody has also been useful in identifying...

Galectin-3-B2C10

Galectin-3 is a 31 kD beta-galactosidase binding lectin. It has been associated with binding to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Anti-Galectin-3 has been demonstrated to be valuable in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in both histologic sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy material. Anti-Galectin-3 antibody has also been useful in identifying...

GATA3-L50-823

GATA-3(GATA binding protein 3) is a member of the GATA family of transcription factors. This 50 kD anuclear protein regulates the development and subsequent maintenance of a variety of human tissues, including hematopoietic cells, skin, kidney, mammary gland, and the central nervous system. Among several other roles, GATA-3 involved in luminal cell differentiation in the mammary gland and appears...

GCDFP-15-EP95

Gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15), also called prolactin inducible protein (PIP), is a single polypeptide chain with a versatile function in human reproductive and immunological systems. GCDFP-15 binds to CD4, exerts a potent inhibition on T-lymphocyte apoptosis mediated by CD4/T-cell receptor (TCR) activation, and carries a fibronectin-specific aspartyl protease activity. It is up...

GFAP-EP13

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) belongs to the class III of the intermediate filament proteins highly specific to astrocytes in the brain. It is also expressed on some ependymal cells in the central nervous system and schwann cells, enteric glial cells and satellite cells in the peripheral nervous system. GFAP is used to differentiate astrocytoma from nonglial cell tumors.

GLUT-1-EP141

Glucose transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins involved in transporting glucose into most cells. There are many types of glucose transport carrier proteins, designed as Glut-1 to Glut-12. Glut-1, also known as SCL2A1, is a major glucose transporter in the mammalian blood-brain barrier. It is expressed in high density on the membranes of human erythrocytes and the brain capillaries that...

Glycophorin A-EP213

Glycophorin A, also known as CD235a, is the major intrinsic membrane protein of the erythrocyte. The N-terminal glycosylated segment, which lies outside of the erythrocyte membrane, has MN blood group receptors. It is important for the function of SLC4A1 and required for the high activity of SLC4A1. Glycophorin A may be involved in the translocation of SLC4A1 to the plasma membrane. It is a...

Glypican-3-1G12+GPC3/863

Glypican-3(GPC3) is a glycosyl phospatidyl inositol-anchored membrane protein, which may also be found in a secreted form. Recently, GPC3 was identified to be useful tumor marker for the diagnosis of HCC, hepatoblastoma, melanoma, testicular germ cell tumors, and Wilms tumor. In patients with HCC, GPC3 was over expressed in neoplastic liver tissue and elevated in serum but was undetectable in...

Growth Hormone-EP267

Growth hormone(GH or hGH), also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that is produced and secreted by somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. GH exerts a wide variety of biological actions in many different tissues and cell types. The action of GH at the cellular level can be divided into three catagorie: those affecting mitogenesis, differentiation, and metabolism. The...

H. Pylori-Polyclonal

Helicobactor pylori is known to cause peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis in human. It is associated with duodenal ulcers and may be involved in development of adenocarcinoma and low grade lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach.

H.Pylori-EP279

Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is an endemic helix-shaped Gram- negative bacterium that infected over half of the world’s population, reaching over 80% prevalence in developing countries. The bacterium attaches tightly to the gastric epithelia upon ingestion via unique bacterial-surface components and releases urease, permitting its survival in the acidic lumen. H. Pylori strains are highly...

HCG Beta-CG04+CG05

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is a glycoprotein, which is secreted in large quantities by normal trophoblasts.It is present only in trace amounts in non-pregnant urine and sera but rises sharply during pregnancy. HCG is composed of two non-identical, non-covalently linked polypeptide chains designated as the alpha- and Beta-subunits.The alpha-subunit of HCG is nearly identical to that of...

HEP Par-1-OCH1E5

Clone OCH1E5 is useful in studying hepatocellular tumors. It may be useful in differentiating clear cell hepatocellular carcinomas from other clear cell malignancies. It has been shown in the literature to be useful in differentiating hepatoblastoma of embryonal type from small round cell tumors of childhood. OCH1e5 labels an antigen in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver homogenates.

HER2/ErbB2-EP3

HER2/ErB2 is one of the four members of the ErbB receptor family of transmembrane receptor-like tyrosine kinase. The kinase activity of ErbB2 can be activated without a ligand if it is overexpressed, and by association with other ErbB proteins. Overexpression of ErbB2 is detected in almost 40% of human breast cancers.

HISTONE H3 PHOSPHO(pT3)-EP233

Histone H3 is a core histone protein, which complexes with the other histones to form the major constituents of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, phosphorylation of Threonine 3 residue in histone H3 reaches a maximum for condensation during mitosis. Phosphorylation of histone H3 (pHH3) occurs only during late G2 phase and mitosis. pHH3 is a marker for mitoses in various types of...

HLA-DRB1-EP191

HLA-DRB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. Known as MHC class II antigen DRB1*15. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta chain (DRB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins.HLA-DRB1 is expressed mainly on antigen-presenting cells, such as B...

Human Placental Lactogen-EP241

Human placental lactogen (also called CSH1 or HPL), is a member of the human growth hormone(hGH)/human placental lactogen gene family. It is important in the regulation of maternal and fetal metabolis, as well as the growth and development of the fetus. HPL is a secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast during pregnancy. Antibody to HPL reacts with syncytiotrophoblastic cells in...

IgG4-EP138

Human IgG4, one of four subclasses of IgG, contains a gamma 4 heavy chain and a hinge region that is shorter than that of IgG1. No allotypes have been detected on the heavy chains of IgG4. Its two primary effector functions are activating complements and binding to the FcgR of effector cells to initiate phagocytosis. Human IgG4 accounts for less than 6% of the total IgG serum level. Recent...

IMP3-EP286

IMP-3, known as Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-II) mRNA-binding protein 3, is an oncofetal protein that stabilizes IGF-II mRNA for trafficking and plays an important role in cell growth and migration. This 65-70 kDa protein is expressed normally in developing tissues during early embryogenesis in a variety of fetal tissues including the liver, lung kidney, thymus, and placenta, but at low or...

Inhibin Alpha-R1

Inhibin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone comprised of an α and ß subunit. It is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) superfamily and inhibits the production or secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, preferentially follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Inhibin with activin, a closely related dimeric glycoprotein hormone comprised of two ß-subunits, create a fine-tuned endocrine...

INI-1-25

The INI-1 gene, which encodes a functionally uncharacterized protein component of hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is often mutated or deleted in malignant rhabdoid tumor(MRT). Two isoforms of INI-1, that differ by the variable inclusion of amino acids, potentially are produced by differential RNA splicing. The morphology of MRTs can present chanllenges in differential diagnosis. The...

Insulin-EP125

Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids, and it accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. It is synthesized in the beta cell of the pancreas. The antibody labels both normal and neoplastic insulin-producing cells. It is useful in identifying insulinoma.

Kappa Light Chain-EP171

Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chains designated as kappa and lambda. The gene rearrangement process that generates the immunoglobulin molecule results in either a productive kappa or lambda gene. The mechanics of the rearrangement process normally produce approximately twice as many kappa-bearing...

Keratin-CAM5.2

Anti-Cytokeratin (CAM 5.2) reagent has a primary reactivity with human keratin proteins that correspond to Moll`s peptides #7 and #8, Mr 48 and 52 kDa, respectively. Cytokeratin 7 and 8 are present on secretory epithelia of normal human tissue but not on stratified squamous epithelium. Anti-Cytokeratin (CAM 5.2) stains most epithelial-derived tissue, including liver, renal tubular epithelium, and...

Ki-67-GM001

The antibody labels Ki-67, a proliferation-associated nuclear protein expressed during all active phases of the cell cycle. Quantitative determination of the fraction of cells, which stain positive for the Ki-67 nuclear antigen, has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate way of assessing the fraction of proliferating cells within a given tissue. Estimation of the cell proliferation index in...

Ki-67-MIB-1

The Ki-67 protein is a nuclear protein doublet, 345-395 kDa, playing a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation. In diagnostic histopathology and cell biology, the antibody has proven valuable for the demonstration of the Ki-67 antigen in normal and neoplastic cells, for example in soft-tissue sarcoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and breast carcinoma. The Ki-67 has been confirmed as a very...

KIM-1[HAVcr-1] (EP309)

KIM-1(kidney injury molecule 1), also known as HAVcr-1 (Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1), is a transmembrane glycoprotein that contributes to immune modulation, allergic response and viral disease susceptibility. KIM-1 has wide tissue distribution, and is localized on the apical membrane. While KIM-1 protein expression is generally undetectable in the normal kidney, high levels were...

Lambda Light Chain-EP172

Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chains designated as kappa and lambda. The gene rearrangement process that generates the immunoglobulin molecule results in either a productive kappa or lambda gene. The mechanics of the rearrangement process normally produce approximately twice as many kappa-bearing...

Laminin-Polyclonal

This antibody labels laminin,which is present in the basement membrane.The antibody may be useful in the characterization of basement membrane preservation, e.g. in breast cancer and adenocarcinomas of the lung. Laminins have been found to promote cell adhesion,migration,protease activity,proliferation,tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. 

LH Alpha-LHa/756

This MAb reacts with a protein of ~13kDa, identified as alpha sub-unit of Luteinizing Hormone (LH). Its structure is similar to the other glycoproteins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The protein dimer contains 2 polypeptide units, labeled alpha and beta subunits that are connected by two bridges. The alpha subunits...

Lysozyme-EP134

Lysozyme is a ubiquitous enzyme defined as muraminidase catalyzing the hydrolysis of the beta glycosidic bond in bacterial peptidoglycan, a major component of the bacterial cell wall. Lysozyme in tissues and body fluids is associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhances the activity of immunoagents. Lysozyme...

Mammaglobin Cocktail-304-1A5&31-A5

Mammaglobin is a breast-associated glycoprotein distantly related to secretoglobin family that includes human uteroglobin and lipophilin. Unlike other secretoglobin family members, mammaglobin mRNA expression is breast specific, which has been shown to be a very sensitive marker of occult breast cancer cells in sentinel lymph nodes and peripheral blood. By paraffin immunohistochemistry, the...

Mammaglobin-304-1A5

Mammaglobin is a breast-associated glycoprotein distantly related to secretoglobin family that includes human uteroglobin and lipophilin. Unlike other secretoglobin family members, mammaglobin mRNA expression is breast specific, which has been shown to be a very sensitive marker of occult breast cancer cells in sentinel lymph nodes and peripheral blood. By paraffin immunohistochemistry, the...

Mammaglobin-EP249

The Mammaglobin gene encodes a 10-kDa glycoprotein that is homolog to human Clara cell 10-kDa protein (CC10)/uteroglobin. SCGB2A2. Expression of the mammaglobin gene is highly restricted to the adult mammary gland. Antibody to Mammaglobin labels normal breast epithelial cells and breast tumor cells. It is a useful marker for identification of primary and metastatic breast cancer.

MART-1-EP43

MART-1, also known as Melan-A, is a melanocyte lineage-specific protein (MART-1; melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1) recognized by the T lymphocytes of patients with established malignancy. Antibody to MART-1 labels both normal melanocyte and diseased cell with melanocyte differentiation. It is useful for diagnosis of tumors with melanocyte differentiation, especially metastatic melanoma....

Mart-1/Melan-A-A103

MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells 1) or Melan-A1 is a newly identified melanocyte differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes. MART-1 is present in melanosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. Clone 103 does not cross-react with MAGE-1 or tyrosinase protein. Clone 103 labels melanomas and other tumors showing melanocytic differentiation. It does not stain tumor...

MCM2-EP40

Minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2), also known as DNA replication licensing factor MCM2, is a member of the MCM family that regulates mammalian DNA replication. This family is composed of six related subunits, called the hexameric MCM2-7 complex, that are conserved in all eukaryotes. It functions as a replicative helicase, the molecular motor that both unwinds duplex DNA and powers fork...

MCM5-EP84

Minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5), also known as DNA replication licensing factor MCM5, is a member of the MCM family that regulates mammalian DNA replication. This family is composed of six related subunits, called the hexameric MCM2-7 complex, that are conserved in all eukaryotes. It functions as a replicative helicase, the molecular motor that both unwinds duplex DNA and powers fork...

MDM2 - D-7

p53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer identified to date. Expression of p53 leads to inhibition of cell growth by preventing progression of cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Most importantly, p53 functions to cause arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following any exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents. The MDM2 (murine double minute 2)protein was...

MDR-1-EP271

The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1), also known as P-glycoprotein 1(PgP), is a conserved plasma membrane protein that functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump with broad specificity. MDR-1 expression is thought to cause cross-resistance to structurally unrelated anti-cancer drugs, which may decrease intracellular drug concentrations. MDR-1 is typically expressed primarily in regions...

Melanosome-HMB45

This antibody labels immature melanosomes in normal and pathological tissues. Thus the antibody labels fetal and neonatal melanocyte and junctional nevi. Intradermal nevi and normal resting adult melanocytes are negative. Positive staining does not provide distinction between benign and malignant melanocytic proliferation.\\nThis antibody may be useful for the identification of melanoma and other...

Mesothelin-EP140

The mesothelin gene encodes a 69-kDa precursor protein that is processed to a 40-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, the mature mesothelin, present on the cell surface. Its biological function is not known, but recent studies have shown that it forms a strong and specific complex with MUC16; a binding which has been suggested to be the basis of ovarian cancer metastasis....

MLH1-GM011

MLH1 is deficient in a high proportion of patients with microsatellite instability (MSI-H). It has been shown that immunohistochemical analysis of MLH1 expression is a practical and reliable method for the routine detection of the vast majority of colorectal carcinomas with high-frequency MSI, which are frequently identified in hereditary nonpolyposis cancer (HNPCC) and are account for 15% of...

MMP9-EP127

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of peptidase enzymes, plays a critical role in degradation of extracellular matrix components in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes. MMP-9, also designated as 92-kDa Type IV Collagenase or gelatinase B is a member of MMPs, which is produced as a 92- kDa...

MSH6-EP49

The MutS homologue 6 protein (MSH6) is a member of the MutS homolog family required in the DNA mismatch repair system. Carriers of the mismatch repair gene mutations have a high lifetime risk of developing Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) and several other cancers including endometrial cancer due to microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by accumulation of DNA replication errors in...

MSH6-GM024

MSH6 (MutS homologue 6 protein) is a member of the MutS homolog family (including MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1), which is required in the DNA, mismatch repair. MutS is used by normal proliferating cells to repair mutations that may occur during DNA replication. The examination of MutS protein level including MSH6 by IHC is a simple method to assess microsatellite instability in colon cancer and in...

MUC1-EP85

Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated high molecular weight glycoproteins. Total 21 mucins have been identified to date. Mucins are well known for its involvement in the protection and lubrication of luminal epithelial surfaces. MUC1, a transmembranemucins, has been shown to be involved in several signaling pathways, including Ras, beta-catenin, p120 catenin, p53 and estrogen receptor...

MUC2-EP187

Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins produced by many epithelial tissues. MUC2 is a member of the mucin protein family. MUC2 is secreted and forms an insoluble mucous barrier that protects the gut lumen. MUC2 is the major secretory glycoprotein specifically expressed in goblet cells of the intestinal and airway epithelium. Its expression is a...

MUC4-EP256

MUC4 is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. The MUC4 gene is expressed in various normal epithelial tissues of endodermic origin and carcinomas derived from these tissues. MUC4 antibody labels normal epithelial cells in the trachea, GI tract and prostate, but not in the pancreas. Increased expression of...

MUC5AC-CLH2

Mucin 5AC glycoprotein (MUC5AC) is a HMW glycoprotein belonging to the superfamily of mucins. Mucins are produced by epithelial cells and can be divided into two families; secretory mucins and membrane bound mucins. MUC5AC is a mucus-forming, secreted mucin that is found in normal gastric and tracheo-bronchial mucosa, but absent from normal colon. MUC5AC expression is present in primary ovarian...

MUM1-EP190

MUM1 (multiple myeloma oncogene-1, also called IRF4), a member of the IRF family transcriptional factors, is induced by antigen receptor mediated stimuli and plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. In the hematolymphoid system, MUM1 is primarily expressed in B- cells and actived T-lymphoid cells. In B-cells it is expressed on a small subset of germinal center...

Myeloperoxidase-EP151

Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein, is a major component of azurophilic granules of neutrophil granulocytes (NGs). Optimal oxygen-dependent microbicidal activity depends on MPO as the critical enzyme for the generation of hypochlorous acid and other toxic oxygen products, which are proposed to contribute to tissue damage during inflammation. MPO is a marker for myeloid cells. It may also be...

MyoD1-EP212

MyoD1 is a protein with a key role in regulating muscle differentiation. It regulates muscle cell differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation. The protein is also involved in muscle regeneration. MyoD1 is expressed in developing skeletal muscle tissue but faintly in adult skeletal muscle. In abnormal tissues, it labels tumor cell in Rhabdomyosarcoma....

Myogenin-EP162

Myogenic factors are transcription factors consisting of an amino acid-rich region and a helix-loop-helix(HLH) structure, which can promote muscle devlopment and maintain muscle-specific gene expression by transactivation. Myogenin, one of the myogenic regulatory factors, plays a key role in determining the commitment and differentiation of primitive mesenchymal cells into skeletal muscle. ...

Myogenin-MGN185+F5D

Myogenin is a member of the MyoD family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that also includes MyoD, Myf-5, and MRF4 (also known as herculinor Myf-6). MyoD family members are expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle and play a key role in activating myogenesis by binding to enhancer sequences of muscle-specific genes. The regulatory domain of MyoD is approximately 70...

Myoglobin-EP87

Myoglobin, an intracellular haemoprotein expressed in the heart and oxidative skeletal myofibres of vertebrates, binds molecular oxygen and may facilitate oxygen transport from erythrocytes to mitochondria, thereby maintaining cellular respiration during periods of high physiological demand. Antibody to myoglobin labels skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. In combination with other striated muscle...

Myosin Heavy Chain-EP166

Myosin heavy chain 11(MYH11) is a smooth muscle myosin belonging to the myosin heavy chain family. It is a subunit of a hexameric protein that consists of two heavy chain subunits and two pairs of non-identical light chain subunits. Myosin heavy chain functions as a major contractile protein converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. An aberration in this...

Myosin Light Chain-EP99

Myosin is a hexamer of 2 identical heavy chains and 2 pairs of light chains. The two pairs of light chains of muscle myosins are called essential light chains (ELC) and regulatory light chains (RLC). The light chains stabilize the long alpha helical neck of the myosin head. Myosin light chain-2 (MYL2), also known as the regulatory light chain of myosin, is an important protein involved in the...

Napsin A-EP205

Napsin A is an aspartic proteinase that belongs to the peptidase A1 family and plays a role in pneumocyte surfactant processing. In normal tissue, Anti-Napsin A specifically labels type II pneumocytes in adult lung and epithelial cells in kidney tissues. In abnormal tissues, Napsin A is strongly positive in over 80% of primary lung adenocarcinomas and 79% of renal cell carcinoma by...

NeuN(Neuronal nuclei)-A60

NeuN antibody specifically recognizes the DNA-binding, neuron-specific protein NeuN, which is present in most CNS and PNS neuronal cell types of all vertebrates tested. NeuN protein distributions are apparently restricted to neuronal nuclei, perikarya and some proximal neuronal processes in both fetal and adult brain although, some neurons fail to be recognized by NeuN at all ages: INL retinal...

Neurofilament-EP79

Neuofilaments (NF) are members of the intermediate filament protein family. These neuron-specific filaments are the major constituents of the axonal cytoskeleton. NFs are composed of three major proteins: NF-H is the heavy molecular weight protein (200 kDa), NF-M the medium (160 kDa) and NF-L the light protein (68kDa). The NF-L and NF-M mRNAs are detected early in the embryonal brain, with a...

Neuron-specific enolase(NSE)-5E2

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is the glycolytic isoenzyme of the enolase gamma-gamma dimer specifically detected in neurons of neuroendocrine cells, and their corresponding tumors. In addition, NSE has been demonstrated immunohistochemically in the non-neoplastic cells of the pituitary, peptide secreting tissues, pineolocytes, neuroendocrine cells of the lung, thyroid, parafollicular cells,...

NKX2.2-NX2/294

Expression of NKX2.2 has been found in neuroendocrine tumors of the gut, making it a potential marker for the study of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. More recently, NKX2.2 protein was identified as a target of EWS-FLI-1, the fusion protein specific to Ewing sarcoma, and was shown to be differentially up-regulated in Ewing sarcoma on the basis of array-based gene expression analysis. It...

NKX3.1-EP356

NKX3.1 is a prostate-specific tumor suppressor homeodomain protein encoded by the NKX3.1 homeobox gene in chromosome 8p21. This protein is haploinsufficient and is frequently downregulated during early stages of carcinogenesis in premalignant lesions and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Loss of heterozygosity is present in 60-80% of prostate tumors. NKX3.1 is expressed in the normal prostatic...

NSE gamma-ENO2/1462

Recognizes protein about 50kDa,which is identified as gamma-enalose. Three isoenzymes of enolases are identified, alpha, beta and gamma. Alpha-isoform is expressed in most tissues, whereas beta-form is expressed predominantly in muscle tissue whereas gamma-enolase is found only in nervous tissue. These isoform exist as both homodimers and heterodimers, and they play a role in converting...

OCT 3/4-C-10

Transcription factors containing the POU homeo domain have been shown to be important regulators of tissue-specific gene expression in lymphoid and pituitary differentiation and in early mammalian development. POU domain proteins contain a bipartite DNA-binding domain divided by a flexible linker that enables them to adopt various monomer configurations on DNA. The versatility of POU protein...

OCT-2-EP115

Octamer transcription factor-2 (OCT-2) possess a leucine zipper domain and belongs to the POU family of transcription factors. It specifically binds to the octamer motif (5- ATTTCAT-3), activates immunoglobulin gene expression and regulates transcription in a number of tissues. OCT-2 is important for the expression of B cell specific genes, such as CD20 and CRISP-3. OCT-2 is expressed in mature B...

OCT-2-EP284

Octamer transcription factor-2 (OCT-2) possesses a leucine zipper domain and belongs to the POU family of transcription factors. It specifically binds to the octamer motif (5- ATTTCAT-3), activates immunoglobulin gene expression and regulates transcription in a number of tissues. OCT-2 is important for the expression of B cell specific genes, such as CD20 and CRISP-3. OCT-2 is expressed in mature...

OCT-4-EP143

OCT-4, also known as OTF3 or POU5F1, is a member of the POU family of transcription factors, involved in the regulation of pluripotency during normal development and is detectable in embryonic stem and germ cells. It can specifically bind to the octamer motif (5'-ATTTCAT-3'), and it is critical for the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Overall, OCT-4 is a key regulator of self-renewal in...

p120 Catenin-EP66

Catenins are proteins that are linked to the cytoplasmic domain of transmembrane cadherins. p120 Catenin is a member of this Armadillo gene family of junctional plaque proteins. The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to be important for cadherins cell-adhesion properties. Cytoplasmic accumulation of p120 Catenin...

p16-G175-405

p16ink4a is a tumor suppressor protein. It is a specific inhibitor of cdk4/cdk6, and a tumor suppressor involved in the pathogenesis of variety of malignancies. Recent analysis of the p16ink4a gene revealed homozygous deletions, nonsense, missense, or frameshift mutations in several human cancers. Although the frequency of p16 abnormalities is higher in tumor-derived cell lines than in unselected...

p40-Polyclonal

p40 antibody recognizes the shortest variant of human p53, and it may be a valuable marker in cases where p63 has traditionally been used. At present, p63 is the most frequently used marker for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). p63 is extremely sensitive for SqCC; however, it suffers from specificity limitations due to its reactivity in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas. p40 is a relatively...

p40-ZR8

p63 consists of two major isoforms-TAp63 and ΔNp63. These isoforms differ in the structure of the N terminal domains. The TAp63 isoform (identified by anti-p63 antibody) contains a transactivation competent ‘TA’ domain with homology to p53, which regulates the expression of the growth-inhibitory genes. In contrast, ΔNp63 isoform (identified by anti-p40 antibody) contains an alternative...

p53-BP-53-12

p53 acts as both a tumor-suppressor and transcription factor that, upon activation by DNA damage and other cellular stress signals, leads to the transcription of genes triggering cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair.p53 is overexpressed in over 50% of human cancers. Positive staining of p53 detected by immunohistochemistry has been observed in colon cancer, breast cancer and ovary cancer.

p63-4A4

The p63 protein is a member of the p53 family, which also includes p73. At least 6 different transcripts of p63 derives from alternative splicing events and encodes proteins with two different N termini (TA and ∆N) and three different C termini (α, β and γ). The protein isotypes TAp63α, TAp63β, and TAp63γ contain the N-terminal transactivation (TA) domain, whereas the other three isotypes...

PAX2-EP235

PAX2 is a member of the paired box family of transcription factors, which is required for development and proliferation of the kidney, brain, and müllerian organs. PAX2 genes contain a highly conserved DNA sequence within the paired box region, which encodes a DNA- binding domain, enabling PAX proteins to bind the promoters of specific genes to transcriptionally regulate their expression. PAX2...

PAX5-EP156

PAX5 is a B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is essential for maintaining the identity and function of mature B cells during late B lymphopoiesis. It also plays a role in neural development and spermatogenesis. PAX5 is expressed in pro-, pre-, and mature B cells, and it is expressed in the vast majority of B-cell malignancies. Anti-PAX5 is a specific marker for the B cell...

PAX8-PAX8/1491 + PAX8/1492

Recognizes a protein of 62kDa, identified as PAX8. It is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. This nuclear protein is involved in thyroid follicular cell development and expression of thyroid-specific genes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with thyroid dysgenesis, thyroid follicular carcinomas, and atypical thyroid adenomas. PAX-8 is expressed in the...

PAX8-ZR1

PAX-8 is expressed in the thyroid (and associated carcinomas), non-ciliated mucosal cells of the fallopian tubes and simple ovarian inclusion cysts, but not normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. PAX-8 is expressed in a high percentage of ovarian serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinomas, but only rarely in
primary ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas. Studies have also found PAX-8...

PCNA-EP91

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA polymerase accessory factor that is required for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle and for resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. The PCNA antibody detects proliferating cells in both normal and tumor cells. Anti-PCNA labeling index has been shown to be associated with tumor prognosis.

PD-1-EP239

Programmed death-1 (PD-1), also known as CD279, is a receptor for PDL1 and PDL2. PD1 plays a crucial role in regulating peripheral tolerance and tumor immunity. PD-1 is expressed mainly on a subset of activated T-cells, B-cells and myeloid cells. Increased expression of PD-1 has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma. PD1...

PD1-PDCD1/922

PDCD-1 (programmed cell death-1 protein), also designated CD279, is a type I transmembrane receptor and a member of the immunoglobin gene superfamily. It is expressed on activated T-cells, B-cells, and myeloid cells. Anti-PDCD-1 is a marker of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma and suggests a unique cell of origin for this neoplasm. Unlike CD10 and BCL6, PDCD-1 is expressed by few B-cells, so...

PDL1- E1L3N

Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1(PDL1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1  was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T...

PGP9.5-Polyclonal

Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), also known as ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-1 (UCH-L1), is a 27-kDa protein originally isolated from whole brain extracts. Although PGP9.5 expression in normal tissues was originally felt to be strictly confined to neurons and neuroendocrine cells, it has been subsequently documented in distal renal tubular epithelium, spermatogonia, Leydig cells,...

PLAP-EP194

Alkaline phosphatases (ALP) are dimeric enzymes by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors to the cell membrane. There are at least four distinct but related isozymes: placenta ALP (PLAP), germ cell ALP (PLAP- like or GCAP), intestinal ALP (IAP) and non-specific tissue ALP (TNAP). These isozymes may serve to guide migratory cells, to transport specific molecules such as fat and immunoglobulins...

PMS2-EP51

PMS2, a mismatch repair endonuclease, is a member of a family of genes involved in DNA mismatch repair. Carriers of the mismatch repair gene mutations have a high lifetime risk of developing Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) and several other cancers including endometrial cancer due to microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by accumulation of DNA replication errors in proliferating...

Podoplanin-D2-40

Mouse anti human podoplanin antibody, clone D2-40 was raised against M2A antigen and detects podoplanin. Podoplanin (PDPN) is an O-glycosylated transmembrane glycoprotein that is selectively expressed by, and is a marker of, lymphatic endothelial cells. In normal tissue the 38 kDa protein is also present in human lung, placenta, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney podocytes. It is not found in the...

Progesterone Receptor-EP2

The human progesterone receptor (PR), is a ligand-activated transcription factor and is a member of the steroid receptor family. PR exists in humans as two isoforms; PR-A (94 kDa) which lacks the first 164 amino acids of PR-B and PR-B (114 kDa). While the two forms of PR have similar DNA- and ligand-binding affinities they have opposite transcriptional activities. PR-B functions as an activator...

Prolactin-EP193

Prolactin is a peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that is necessary for the proliferation and differentiation of the mammary glands. Prolactin also acts in a cytokine-like manner and as an important regulator of the immune system. Prolactin has important cell cycle related functions as a growth, differentiating and anti- apoptotic factor. Prolactin is secreted by lactotrophs in...

Prostate-Specific Antigen(PSA)-EP109

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease member of the human glandular kallikrein family. It is synthesized in the prostate ductal and acinar epithelium and diffused into serum. It is found in normal, hyperplastic, and malignant prostate tissue. Low expression of PSA has been reported in other normal or tumor tissues such as urethral, periurethral, and perianal glands, salivary duct...

Prostatic Acid Phosphatase-EP53

Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), a member of the histidine acid phosphatase family, is an enzyme that is a major component of prostatic fluid and secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. Antibody to PAP labels normal prostate epithelial cells, hyperplastic and cancer cells of prostate. It is helpful in identification of tumors with prostate origin.

PSAP-PASE/4LJ

Anti-PSAP reacts with prostatic acid phosphatase in the glandular epithelium of normal and hyperplastic prostate, carcinoma of prostate, and metastatic cells of prostate carcinoma. The marker may be helpful in pinpointing the site of origin in cases of metastatic carcinoma of the prostate, and is considered a more sensitive marker than PSA. However, it also offers less specificity. Neverthless,...

PSMA-EP192

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as folate hydrolase 1(FOLH1), is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the M28 peptidase family. PSMA has two enzymatic activities, one as a prostate-specific integral membrane folate hydrolase and the other as a carboxypeptidase. An antibody to PSMA labels normal prostate epithelial cells and prostate tumor cells. Although the...

PTH-PTH/911

Epitope of this MAb maps in the N-terminus of PTH, a hormone produced by the parathyroid gland that regulates the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular fluid. This hormone elevates blood Ca2+ levels by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion. It is produced in the parathyroid gland as an 84 amino acid single chain polypeptide. It can also be secreted...

RRM-1 -EP242

Ribonucleoside-diphosphatereductase large subunit (RRM1) is one of two non-identical subunits that constitute ribonucleoside-diphosphatereductase, an enzyme essential for the production of deoxyribonucleotides prior to DNA synthesis in S phase of dividing cells. Studies have shown that RRM1 controls cell proliferation through deoxynucleotide production and metastatic propensity through PTEN...

S100 Beta-EP32

S100 Beta is a homodimeric member of the S100 superfamily. S100 is a family of Ca2+-binding proteins, comprises 19 members that are differentially expressed in a large number of cell types. The protein has been implicated in cellular processes such as cell differentiation and growth. S100 Beta is abundant in glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system, in melanocytes, chondrocytes,...

SALL4-6E3

SALL4, a newly identified zinc-finger transcriptional factor, is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency by modulating Oct4. SALL4 is a novel sensitive and highly specific marker for metastatic germ cell tumors, and is particularly useful for detecting metastatic yolk sac tumors. It is positive in seminomas (100%), dysgerminomas (100%), embryonal carcinomas (100%), yolk...

SALL4-EP299

The Sal-like protein 4, SALL4 is a zinc finger transcription factor located on chromosome 20q13.13-13.2. It is essential during development by maintaining embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Mutations in SALL4 lead to acro-renal-ocular and Okihiro syndromes, a disorder of the eyes and abnormalities of bones in the arms and hands. Recently, SALL4 has been identified as a novel...

SATB2-EP281

DNA-binding protein SATB2, also known as Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2, is a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor. SATB2 acts as a docking site for chromatin remodeling enzymes and recruits co-activators and co-repressors to control nuclear gene expression. SATB2 also regulates skeletal development, osteoblast differentiation, and modulates immunoglobulin expression. In...

Serum Amyloid A- EP335

Serum Amyloid A(SAA) is an acute-phase protein primarily synthesized in the liver. While it is typically found at low concentrations in healthy individuals, pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulates SAA productio to encourage recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory sites.Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the abnormal build-up of amyloid, abnormal non-branching fibillary beta pleated...

SOX10-EP268

SOX10 is a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. During development, SOX10 first appears in the forming neural crest and continues to be expressed in Schwann cells. It is important for differentiation, maturation and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes. In normal...

SOX2-EP103

SOX2 is a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. It is required for stem cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and it also regulates gene expression in the stomach. SOX2 is necessary for regulating multiple transcription factors that affect Oct3/4 expression. An...

STAT-6-EP325

 Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6) is a transcription factor in the Jak/STAT signal transduction pathway responsible for mediating IL-4 immune signaling. STAT6 was recently suggested to be a reliable marker to distinguish solitary fibrous tumors from other soft tissue neoplasms. Gene fusions are common in solitary fibrous tumors. Recent next generation sequencing...

Survivin-EP119

Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that interferes with post-mitochondrial events including activation of caspases. The association of survivin expression with tumor progression, but not overall patient survival, has been observed in a variety of malignancies including renal cell carcinoma, ovary carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma...

Synaptophysin-EP158

Synaptophysin is a major integral transmembrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles with four transmembrane domains. This protein is present in almost all neurons and neuroendocrine cells throughout the body.An antibody to Synaptophysin is useful for the identification of tumors with neural and neuroendocrine differentiation.

Synaptophysin-GR007

The Synaptophysin is expressed in presynaptic vesicles of various kinds of neurons.This antibody has specific staining of neuronal, adrenal, and neuroepithelial tumors. Positive results may be a useful tool for the identification of a wide spectrum of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Differential diagnosis is aided by the results from a panel of antibodies.Nuclear staining may be present in some tissues...

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT)-EP266

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a unique DNA polymerase that changes the addition of deoxynucleoside 5’- triphosphate to the 3’-end of a DNA initiator without template direction. TdT contributes to the generation of junctional diversity in antigen receptors of immature lymphocytes. TdT is expressed in lymphoid precursors of B- and T-cell lineage in thymus and bone marrow. Foci...

TFE3-EP285

TFE3, known as Transcription Factor E3, is a member of the helix- loop-helix family of transcription factors. TFE3 interacts with several transcriptional regulators to affect cell growth, proliferation and osteoclast and macrophage differentiation. In the immune system, TFE3 plays important roles in modulating immunoglobulin heavy- chain expression and regulating B cell activation. Additionally,...

Thyroglobulin-EP250

Thyroglobulin (TG) is a dimeric glycoprotein specific to the thyroid gland which belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family. It is the precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Variations in TG are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease type 3, and defective or impaired TG synthesis usually results in congenital goitrous...

TLE1-1F5

Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) gene is a member of the TLE gene family and involved in control of hematopoiesis, neuronal, and terminal epithelial differentiation. By immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, TLE1 (expression nuclear staining) has been found in 35 of 35 molecularly confirmed synovial sarcoma cases, and was rare to absent in the 73 other soft...

TNF-alpha

This MAb recognizes human 17-26kDa protein, which is identified as cytokine TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha). TNF-alpha can be expressed as a 17kDa free molecule, or as a 26kDa membrane protein. TNF-alpha is a protein secreted by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, and causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor bearing mice. TNF alpha causes cytolysis of certain transformed...

Topoisomerase II Alpha-EP93

DNA topoisomerase II alpha (Topo IIα) is a 170 kDa ubiquitous nuclear enzyme belonging to the topo family, which regulates the topological states of DNA. Topo II is required in chromatin condensation and segregation during mitosis. Topo II α is cell cycle regulated and its level peaks between G2 to M phase. It has been linked to cell proliferation and it may be the main isoform of Topo II...

Transcription Factor PU.1-EP18

PU.1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and is required for the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages. It plays a pivotal role in normal myeloid differentiation, and regulates the expression of immunoglobulin and other genes that are important for B-cell development. Antibody against PU.1 stains B lymphocyte in germinal center and mantle B cell, but not plasma cell....

TSH-EP254

TSH is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family, constituting a subset of the cystine-knot growth factor superfamily. TSH is produced by the pituitary thyrotrophs and released into circulation in a pulsatile manner. It stimulates thyroid functions using a specific membrane TSH receptor (TSHR) that belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSH beta is the beta subunit...

TTF-1

Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a 38kDa homeodomain- containing nuclear transcription factor belonging to the NKX2 gene family. TTF-1 expression was found in early stages of gestation and could play an important role in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the thyroid and lung. TTF-1 is expressed in epithelial cells of the lung and thyroid in normal tissues. TTF-1 is also used as a...

TTF-1-EP229

Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a 38kDa homeodomain- containing nuclear transcription factor belonging to the NKX2 gene family. TTF-1 expression was found in early stages of gestation and could play an important role in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of the thyroid and lung. TTF-1 is expressed in epithelial cells of the lung and thyroid in normal tissues. TTF-1 is also used as a...

Uroplakin III-EP321

Uroplakin III (UP III) is one of the four transmembrane proteins (UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII) that are specifically expressed in terminally differentiated urothelial cells.Studies have shown that UPIII is highly specific for identification of primary and metastatic urothelial carcinomas. However, the sensitivity of UPIII in detection of urothelial carcinoma is moderate. Combined use of a panel...

VEGF-VG1

The onset of angiogenesis is believed to be an early event in tumor genesis and may facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. Several growth factors with angiogenic activity have been described. These include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a dimeric glycoprotein with structural homology to PDGF....

Villin-GR016

Villin is mainly expressed by epithelial cells of the small and large intestines, ductal cells of the pancreas and biliary system, cells of the proximal renal tubules, and ductuli efferentes of the testis. Villin may be a useful marker of gastrointestinal tumors particularly those from the colon, stomach, and pancreas. Villin also may be a useful marker for some neuroendocrine carcinomas, ovarian...

Vimentin-EP21

Vimentin is the most common member of intermediate filament (IF) family and one of the main components in cytoskeleton structure. It is expressed during cell development and differentiation in variety of mescencymal cells and cell types derived from mesoderm. Vimentin is essential in the role of cell integrity and cytoskeletal stability. The reorganization of Vimentin, similar to all IF...

Vimentin-V9

Vimentin is ubiquitously expressed in mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelium. Co-expression of Vimentin and Cytokeratin is indicative of epitheloid sarcoma. Vimentin expression may change as a tumor becomes more aggressive. The antibody is specific for Vimentin and does not recognize any other intermediate filaments, including desmin and glial fibrillary...

Von Willebrand Factor-Polyclonal

Anti-Factor VIII-Related Antigen antibody reacts with endothelial cells and neoplastic blood cells. This antibody has helped to establish the endothelial nature of some lesions of disputed histogenesis, e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma and cardiac myxoma. Not all endothelial cells systhesize(or store) this molecule; therefore, it should not be surprising that not all tumors of endothelial...

Von Willebrand Factor-VWF635

von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is a multimeric glycoprotein that is found in endothelial cells, plasma and platelets. It acts as a carrier protein for Factor VIII and promotes platelet adhesion and aggregation. vWF undergoes a variety of posttranslational modifications that influence the affinity and availability for Factor VIII, including cleavage of the propeptide and formation of N-terminal...

Wilm's Tumor 1-EP122

Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in cellular development and cell survival. The WT1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in Wilms’ tumor, recently implicated in WNT signaling through the enhancement of cytoplasmic beta-catenin (CTNNB1) degradation.WT1 has been demonstrated in mesenchymal-derived cells and in Wilms’ tumor. An antibody to...