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MDM2 - D-7

p53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer identified to date. Expression of p53 leads to inhibition of cell growth by preventing progression of cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Most importantly, p53 functions to cause arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following any exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents. The MDM2 (murine double minute 2)protein was...

Ki-67-MIB-1

The Ki-67 protein is a nuclear protein doublet, 345-395 kDa, playing a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation. In diagnostic histopathology and cell biology, the antibody has proven valuable for the demonstration of the Ki-67 antigen in normal and neoplastic cells, for example in soft-tissue sarcoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and breast carcinoma. The Ki-67 has been confirmed as a very...

ATRX-D5

ATRX is a member of the Snf2 family of helicase/ATPases, which contribute to the remodeling of the nucelosome structure in an ATP-dependent manner, and facilitate the initiation of transcription and replication. Structurally, ATRX contains a PHD zinc finger motif. ATRX is regulated throughout the cell cycle where it is differentially distributed within the nucleus. During interphase, ATRX...

CDK4-EP180

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16 (INK4a). Overexpression of CDK4 has been observed in many...

SATB2-EP281

DNA-binding protein SATB2, also known as Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2, is a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor. SATB2 acts as a docking site for chromatin remodeling enzymes and recruits co-activators and co-repressors to control nuclear gene expression. SATB2 also regulates skeletal development, osteoblast differentiation, and modulates immunoglobulin expression. In...

FOXA1-EP277

FOXA1, also known as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-alpha, is a member of the FOX class of transcription factors. FOXA1 has been identified as a hepatocyte enriched factor required for the expression of transthyretin and α1- antitrypsin. Recently, FOXA1 has been shown to be a major determinant of estrogen-ER activity and endocrine response in breast cancer cells. FOXA1 expression correlates with...

FOXP1-EP137

The FOXP1 protein belongs to a functionally diverse family of winged-helix or forkhead transcription factors that have diverse roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. The FOXP1 gene has been mapped to chromosome 3p14.1, a region that commonly shows loss of heterozygosity in a wide range of tumors and is reported to contain a tumor suppressor gene(s). The...

Epithelial Membrane Antigen-E29

Epithelial Membrane Antigen(EMA),or CA15-3, or polymorphic epithelial mucin(PEM), or sialomucin, or episialin is a mucin like glycoprotein. EMA is valuable as a marker in the detection of breast carcinoma metastasis in histological selection of liver, lymph node, and bone marrow, and is useful for differentiation anaplastic carcinoma from malignant lymphomas, and for the recognition of spindle...

Ep-CAM-EP155

Ep-CAM is a highly conserved type I transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on most normal and malignant epithelial cells. As a calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule, Ep-CAM is intricately linked with the Cadherin-Catenin pathway and hence the fundamental WNT pathway responsible for intracellular signaling and polarity. Ep-CAM is also known as epithelial cell adhesion molecule or MOC31,...

Estrogen Receptor Alpha-EP1

Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER alpha) is a nuclear protein and member of the steroid hormone receptor family. ER alpha possesses both DNA binding and ligand binding domains, and exerts a significant role in activating the transcription of certain genes. Ligand-dependent dimerization and phosphorylation both function to regulate the transcriptional activation of ER alpha.

c-Myc-EP121

The c-Myc gene is located at chromosome 8q24. It is required for progression through the cell cycle and promotes cellular proliferation. The t(8;14)(q24;q32) translocation and the c-Myc/immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) fusion gene are not only in Burkitt lymphoma, but are also seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, blastic mantle cell lymphoma and transformed follicular lymphoma. In another study...

Cytokeratin 7-EP16

Cytokeratin7(CK7) is a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein expressed on most ductal and glandular epithelium including lung, breast, bladder and female genital tract, but not in most gastrointestinal epithelium, prostate, hepatocyte and squamous epithelium. CK7 expression is absent in colon cancer, prostate cancer and Squamous carcinomas. The restricted expression of CK7 in some epithelium...

Cytokeratin 20-Ks20.8

This antibody is highly specific to cytokeratin 20 and shows no cross-reaction with other intermediate filament proteins. It is essentially non-reactive in squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the breast, lung, and endometrium, non-mucinous tumors of the ovary and small cell carcinomas.

PMS2-EP51

PMS2, a mismatch repair endonuclease, is a member of a family of genes involved in DNA mismatch repair. Carriers of the mismatch repair gene mutations have a high lifetime risk of developing Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) and several other cancers including endometrial cancer due to microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by accumulation of DNA replication errors in proliferating...

Progesterone Receptor-EP2

The human progesterone receptor (PR), is a ligand-activated transcription factor and is a member of the steroid receptor family. PR exists in humans as two isoforms; PR-A (94 kDa) which lacks the first 164 amino acids of PR-B and PR-B (114 kDa). While the two forms of PR have similar DNA- and ligand-binding affinities they have opposite transcriptional activities. PR-B functions as an activator...

S100 Beta-EP32

S100 Beta is a homodimeric member of the S100 superfamily. S100 is a family of Ca2+-binding proteins, comprises 19 members that are differentially expressed in a large number of cell types. The protein has been implicated in cellular processes such as cell differentiation and growth. S100 Beta is abundant in glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system, in melanocytes, chondrocytes,...

Synaptophysin-GR007

The Synaptophysin is expressed in presynaptic vesicles of various kinds of neurons.This antibody has specific staining of neuronal, adrenal, and neuroepithelial tumors. Positive results may be a useful tool for the identification of a wide spectrum of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Differential diagnosis is aided by the results from a panel of antibodies.Nuclear staining may be present in some tissues...

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT)-EP266

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a unique DNA polymerase that changes the addition of deoxynucleoside 5’- triphosphate to the 3’-end of a DNA initiator without template direction. TdT contributes to the generation of junctional diversity in antigen receptors of immature lymphocytes. TdT is expressed in lymphoid precursors of B- and T-cell lineage in thymus and bone marrow. Foci...

TLE1-1F5

Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) gene is a member of the TLE gene family and involved in control of hematopoiesis, neuronal, and terminal epithelial differentiation. By immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, TLE1 (expression nuclear staining) has been found in 35 of 35 molecularly confirmed synovial sarcoma cases, and was rare to absent in the 73 other soft...

Vimentin-V9

Vimentin is ubiquitously expressed in mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelium. Co-expression of Vimentin and Cytokeratin is indicative of epitheloid sarcoma. Vimentin expression may change as a tumor becomes more aggressive. The antibody is specific for Vimentin and does not recognize any other intermediate filaments, including desmin and glial fibrillary...

Wilm\'s Tumor 1-EP122

Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in cellular development and cell survival. The WT1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in Wilms’ tumor, recently implicated in WNT signaling through the enhancement of cytoplasmic beta-catenin (CTNNB1) degradation.WT1 has been demonstrated in mesenchymal-derived cells and in Wilms’ tumor. An antibody to...

PAX5-EP156

PAX5 is a B-cell lineage specific activator protein (BSAP) that is essential for maintaining the identity and function of mature B cells during late B lymphopoiesis. It also plays a role in neural development and spermatogenesis. PAX5 is expressed in pro-, pre-, and mature B cells, and it is expressed in the vast majority of B-cell malignancies. Anti-PAX5 is a specific marker for the B cell...

PAX8-ZR1

PAX-8 is expressed in the thyroid (and associated carcinomas), non-ciliated mucosal cells of the fallopian tubes and simple ovarian inclusion cysts, but not normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. PAX-8 is expressed in a high percentage of ovarian serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinomas, but only rarely in
primary ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas. Studies have also found PAX-8...

p16-G175-405

p16ink4a is a tumor suppressor protein. It is a specific inhibitor of cdk4/cdk6, and a tumor suppressor involved in the pathogenesis of variety of malignancies. Recent analysis of the p16ink4a gene revealed homozygous deletions, nonsense, missense, or frameshift mutations in several human cancers. Although the frequency of p16 abnormalities is higher in tumor-derived cell lines than in unselected...

p40-Polyclonal

p40 antibody recognizes the shortest variant of human p53, and it may be a valuable marker in cases where p63 has traditionally been used. At present, p63 is the most frequently used marker for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). p63 is extremely sensitive for SqCC; however, it suffers from specificity limitations due to its reactivity in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas. p40 is a relatively...

p53-BP-53-12

p53 acts as both a tumor-suppressor and transcription factor that, upon activation by DNA damage and other cellular stress signals, leads to the transcription of genes triggering cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair.p53 is overexpressed in over 50% of human cancers. Positive staining of p53 detected by immunohistochemistry has been observed in colon cancer, breast cancer and ovary cancer.

p63-4A4

The p63 protein is a member of the p53 family, which also includes p73. At least 6 different transcripts of p63 derives from alternative splicing events and encodes proteins with two different N termini (TA and ∆N) and three different C termini (α, β and γ). The protein isotypes TAp63α, TAp63β, and TAp63γ contain the N-terminal transactivation (TA) domain, whereas the other three isotypes...

Napsin A-EP205

Napsin A is an aspartic proteinase that belongs to the peptidase A1 family and plays a role in pneumocyte surfactant processing. In normal tissue, Anti-Napsin A specifically labels type II pneumocytes in adult lung and epithelial cells in kidney tissues. In abnormal tissues, Napsin A is strongly positive in over 80% of primary lung adenocarcinomas and 79% of renal cell carcinoma by...

Melanosome-HMB45

This antibody labels immature melanosomes in normal and pathological tissues. Thus the antibody labels fetal and neonatal melanocyte and junctional nevi. Intradermal nevi and normal resting adult melanocytes are negative. Positive staining does not provide distinction between benign and malignant melanocytic proliferation.\\nThis antibody may be useful for the identification of melanoma and other...

MSH6-EP49

The MutS homologue 6 protein (MSH6) is a member of the MutS homolog family required in the DNA mismatch repair system. Carriers of the mismatch repair gene mutations have a high lifetime risk of developing Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) and several other cancers including endometrial cancer due to microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by accumulation of DNA replication errors in...

MUM1-EP190

MUM1 (multiple myeloma oncogene-1, also called IRF4), a member of the IRF family transcriptional factors, is induced by antigen receptor mediated stimuli and plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. In the hematolymphoid system, MUM1 is primarily expressed in B- cells and actived T-lymphoid cells. In B-cells it is expressed on a small subset of germinal center...

Ki-67-GM001

The antibody labels Ki-67, a proliferation-associated nuclear protein expressed during all active phases of the cell cycle. Quantitative determination of the fraction of cells, which stain positive for the Ki-67 nuclear antigen, has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate way of assessing the fraction of proliferating cells within a given tissue. Estimation of the cell proliferation index in...

Lambda Light Chain-EP172

Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chains designated as kappa and lambda. The gene rearrangement process that generates the immunoglobulin molecule results in either a productive kappa or lambda gene. The mechanics of the rearrangement process normally produce approximately twice as many kappa-bearing...

HER2/ErbB2-EP3

HER2/ErB2 is one of the four members of the ErbB receptor family of transmembrane receptor-like tyrosine kinase. The kinase activity of ErbB2 can be activated without a ligand if it is overexpressed, and by association with other ErbB proteins. Overexpression of ErbB2 is detected in almost 40% of human breast cancers.

Kappa Light Chain-EP171

Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two types of light chains designated as kappa and lambda. The gene rearrangement process that generates the immunoglobulin molecule results in either a productive kappa or lambda gene. The mechanics of the rearrangement process normally produce approximately twice as many kappa-bearing...

EGFR-EP22

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a 170 kDatransmembrane glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase that, activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), affects cell growth and differentiation. Binding of EGF or TGF alpha to EGFR activates tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor. Phosphorylation of Tyr 992, Tyr 1068 and Tyr 1086 is required for conformational change in the C-terminal of EGFR....

GATA3-L50-823

GATA-3(GATA binding protein 3) is a member of the GATA family of transcription factors. This 50 kD anuclear protein regulates the development and subsequent maintenance of a variety of human tissues, including hematopoietic cells, skin, kidney, mammary gland, and the central nervous system. Among several other roles, GATA-3 involved in luminal cell differentiation in the mammary gland and appears...

GFAP-EP13

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) belongs to the class III of the intermediate filament proteins highly specific to astrocytes in the brain. It is also expressed on some ependymal cells in the central nervous system and schwann cells, enteric glial cells and satellite cells in the peripheral nervous system. GFAP is used to differentiate astrocytoma from nonglial cell tumors.

HEP Par-1-OCH1E5

Clone OCH1E5 is useful in studying hepatocellular tumors. It may be useful in differentiating clear cell hepatocellular carcinomas from other clear cell malignancies. It has been shown in the literature to be useful in differentiating hepatoblastoma of embryonal type from small round cell tumors of childhood. OCH1e5 labels an antigen in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver homogenates.

Positively Charged Slides

Most tissue sections in an aqueous medium, pH 5-7 carry negative charges. So, sections tend to adhere well to a glass slide if it is treated in such a way as to make it positively charged. The modification is usually accomplished either by coating the slide with a basic polymer or by a chemical reaction that leaves amino groups linked by covalent bonds to the silicon atoms of the glass....

CD56-123C3

This antibody recognizes two proteins of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the basic molecule expressed on most neuroectodermally derived cell lines, tissues and neoplasms.This antibody is useful for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells, NK-like T cells, neural/neuroendocrine tissues and related neoplasms. The antibody labels NK cells and a subset of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in...

CD99-EP8

CD99 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, also known as MIC2. It is involved in T-cell adhesion, leukocyte migration and differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal cell. CD99 labels lymphocyte, ovarian granulosa cells, pancreatic islet cells, sertoli cells, CNS ependymal cells and endothelial cells. CD99 has been useful in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma, sex cord-stromal tumor, and endocrine tumor of...

CD138-EP201

CD138, also known as Syndecan-1, is a member of the transmembrane heparin sulfate proteoglycan family, acts as an extracellular matrix receptor and is involved in many cellular functions, including cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion. CD138 expression is found in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.In the hematopoietic system, CD138 labels plasma cells. It is an excellent...

CEA-COL-1

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is found in several adenocarcinomas, such as colon, lung, breast, stomach and pancreas. Malignant mesothelioma is usually negative for CEA.The antibody is a useful tool for the identification of colon carcinomas, and for the distinction of mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma when used with a panel of antibodies (e.g. with Cytokeratin, Calretinin, etc.)

Chromogranin A-EP38

Chromogranin A (CgA) is an 86 kDa protein that is the major member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins located in neurosecretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Chromogranin A showed broad expression in endocrine tissues including pituitary, adrenal medulla, thyroid, pancreatic islets, and gastrointestinal tract. Chromogranin A represents the single most specific marker of...

Chromogranin-A-Polyclonal

Chromogranin A present in secretory granules of endocrine cells. It is the most specific marker for neuroendocrine differentiation and corresponds to the neurosecretory granule.The antibody labels Chromogranin A and is used to qualitatively distinguish between neoplasm of neuroendocrine origin from non-neuroendocrine origin.

CD45-EP68

CD45, also known as the leukocyte common antigen (LCA), is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) that is expressed in almost all hematolymphoid cells including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and macrophage, but not in mature erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. CD45 antibody labelling of majority of hematolymphoid neoplasms, is a first line of marker for the identification of...

CD30-Ber-H2

This antibody labels anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Reed-Sternberg cells. It is a useful tool for the identification of ALCL and as a secondary marker for Hodgkin’s disease. CD30 antigen is also expressed in other abnormal tissues such as embryonal carcinomas and mesenchymal tumors. 

CD20-L26

CD20 is expressed on B-cell precursors and mature B cells, but is lost in plasma cells. CD20 is almost always expressed in B cell lymphomas of small cell type, prolymphocytic leukemia, follicular center cell lymphomas, large or small cell types of both diffuse and follicular patterns, monocytoid lymphomas, mantle cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemias/lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas. Clone...

CD4-EP204

CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T-helper cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. It is a co-receptor that assists the T-cell receptor (TCR) with an antigen-presenting cell and also interacts directly with MHC class II molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cells using its extracellular domain. In lymphatic tissues, the CD4+ T-cells are...

CD3-Polyclonal

CD3 is a highly specific marker for T Lymphocytes. It is expressed by T cells in thymus, bone marrow, peripheral lymphoid tissue and blood. The majority of T-cell neoplasm expresses the CD3 antigen, while it is absent from non-T-cell lymphoid malignancies. CD3 is an essential marker for the initial evaluation of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

Calretinin-Rabbit Polyclonal

Calretinin is a member of the superfamily of calcium-binding protein. It is abundantly expressed in central and peripheral neural tissues. Calretinin is expressed by both normal and neoplastic mesothelial cells and is a useful marker for the identification of malignant mesothelioma of the epithelial type and for the differentiation of the malignancies from metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma....

Bcl-6-EP278

Bcl-6 is a kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor spanning 706 amino acids. Bcl-6 plays a central role in germinal centre (GC) formation, functioning as a regular of B lymphocyte growth and development by protecting GC B cells from undergoing DNA damage induced apoptosis. Logarajah S et al. found that Bcl-6 is involved in mammary epithelial differentiation, which may play a potential role...

Bcl-2- EP36

The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial permeability and release of cytochrome c. Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that resides in the outer mitochondrial wall and inhibits release of cytochrome c. Over-expression of Bcl-2 has been shown to promote cell survival by suppressing apoptosis. It has been documented that bcl-2 becomes deregulated in tumor cells...

c-Kit/CD117 – EP10

Member of the Tyrosine Kinase Receptor (TKRs) and highly homologous to receptor PDF and CSF-1.Activation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase by SCF (Stem Cell factor) leads to autophosphorylation and association of c-Kit with substrate PI3K.  c-Kit/CD117 is a marker for Mast cell and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

Alpha-Actin(Smooth Muscle)-EP188

Actins are a major component of the cytoskeleton ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Although actin is one of the most conserved eukaryotic proteins, six isoforms characterized by isoelectric point and amino acid sequence analysis. Four of them represent differentiation markers of muscle tissues and two are found practically in all cells. These six different actin isoforms share 90%...